Introduzione: La tendenza è quella di avere quantità di campione dalle dimensioni sempre minori e controllate ma comunque rappresentative.
Nell’analisi dei materiali solidi certamente non si applica il detto popolare “più grande è meglio”. L’obiettivo è produrre particelle sufficientemente piccole da soddisfare i requisiti delle analisi, garantendo nel contempo una rappresentazione accurata del materiale originale. Le “particelle” d’interesse per l’analista vanno generalmente da 10 µm a 2 mm, ma in molte applicazioni sono necessarie granulometrie ancora più fini. Un esempio sono i principi attivi, dove è necessario operare nel range dei submicron. Infine, per l’estrazione di DNA ed RNA, la tecnica della lisi cellulare è già ben consolidata.
Il rilevamento di droghe e farmaci illegali è importante in settori quali la scienza forense, il traffico o competizioni sportive. Sostanze chimiche si possono riscontrare nel sangue, nella saliva, nelle urine e nel capello, quest’ultimo possiede il vantaggio di memorizzare le sostanze per un periodo più o meno lungo, a seconda della sua lunghezza. Oltre al rilevamento delle droghe, i capelli sono utilizzati anche per le analisi del DNA.
The use of pesticides in agriculture makes it possible to plant extensive mono cultures and often leads to substantial yield increases of food and feed crops. Demand and application have grown steadily over the years, leading to increased contamination of the soil due to the toxic nature of pesticides. Soils save the toxins and their decomposition products so that wildlife is also affected by them. Among the undesired side effects are damages to useful plants and insects like bees. The wind carries pesticides to uncontaminated areas such as fields used for organic farming. Rain also transports the chemicals away from their original area of application to waters and groundwater. Although in most cases the limit values for particular pesticides and their decomposition products are not exceeded, the cumulative effect on humans and animals has not been thoroughly investigated so far. The possible accumulation of pesticides in the food chain could be a source of health hazards; therefore strict quality control of soils is indispensable.
Reliable and accurate analysis results can only be guaranteed by reproducible sample preparation. This consists of transforming a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness. Retsch offers a comprehensive range of the most modern mills and crushers for coarse, fine and ultra-fine size reduction of almost any material. The product range also comprises a wide choice of grinding tools and accessories which helps to ensure contamination-free preparation of a great variety of sample materials. The selection of the correct grinding tool depends on the sample material and the subsequent method of analysis. Different grinding tools have different characteristics, such as required energy input, hardness or wear-resistance.
A variety of methods can be used to analyze solid materials. What they all have in common is the necessity to use a representative, homogeneous analysis sample which needs to have a particular fineness, depending on the analytical method used. The size reduction and homogenization of solids is usually carried out with laboratory crushers and grinders.
A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
The detection of illegal drugs and pharmaceuticals plays a role in various fields, for example in forensic science, road traffic accidents, in competitive sports or at the workplace. Chemical substances can be detected in blood, saliva, urine and in hair. Hair has the great advantage of storing the substances for a long period, which means that detection is still possible several months after consumption of the drug. In addition to the detection of drugs, hair samples are also used for DNA analysis as well as for the analysis of heavy metals and minerals.
Cashmere wool is the best known precious wool. It is won from the cashmere goat which originates from the high mountain region of the same name. Due to its properties such as softness and warmth, cashmere wool gains more and more popularity in the manufacture of clothing. Genuine cashmere is won solely from the goat’s downy hair and must possess a certain hair structure with an exactly defined length and thickness.
Mechanochemistry is a very effective method to carry out syntheses without solvents and by-products. The technical literature describes a great number of reactions where a conversion of 100% is achieved. A precondition for the establishment of mechanochemistry in the industrial sector is the availability of suitable laboratory mills. A decisive factor is that – similar to conventional preparative chemistry – ambient parameters such as pressure and temperature can be documented and monitored. The Planetary Ball Mills and Mixer Mills from Retsch fulfill these requirements.